Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Treatment and Future Options Report Summary

Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Treatment and Future Options Report Summary

Author or authors of report : Tanya Moutray, Usha Chakravarthy,
Date of report : 2011-09-02

Major Points:

  1. Epidemiology and Risk Factors: AMD is prevalent among older adults, and risk factors include genetic predispositions, environmental factors like sunlight exposure, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and diet.
  2. Pathophysiology: AMD involves thickening of Bruch's membrane and may include abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The condition can lead to severe visual loss over time.
  3. Types of AMD: The report categorizes AMD into dry and exudative (or neovascular) types. Exudative AMD is further classified based on patterns of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
  4. Current Management Strategies: Early detection is crucial, and patient education is emphasized. Risk factor reduction strategies include quitting smoking and adopting a diet rich in antioxidants.
  5. Treatment Options: Earlier treatments like laser-based therapies were not very effective. Current treatments focus on inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a key factor in AMD progression.
  6. Anti-VEGF Therapies: Drugs like ranibizumab (Lucentis), bevacizumab (Avastin), and pegaptanib sodium (Macugen) are used. Ranibizumab is currently the treatment of choice for subfoveal CNV.
  7. Safety Concerns: Anti-VEGF therapies may have cardiovascular side effects, and guidelines recommend temporary discontinuation in certain cases.
  8. Future Directions: Research is ongoing to refine treatment regimes, including the frequency and type of anti-VEGF drugs. Combination therapies are also being considered.


  • Anti-VEGF therapies have shown significant benefits in maintaining visual function.
  • Risk factor reduction can play a crucial role in AMD management.
  • Despite advancements, current treatments require frequent monitoring and may have side effects, indicating a need for further research.